OSHA QuickTakes – January 16, 2013

OSHA QuickTakes

New resources available on protecting hospital workers, enhancing patient safety


OSHA hosts informal public meeting, extends comment period on proposed rule to improve tracking of workplace injuries and illnesses


Stakeholders join OSHA for silica rulemaking Web chat


Listening sessions seek public input on chemical safety


Assistant Secretary Michaels addresses National COSH Conference, celebrates graduating class of bilingual training program


Reliable Castings Corp. of Ohio fined more than $293,000 for multiple violations including struck-by, crushing and amputation hazards


Tyson Foods cited for safety violations after worker’s hand severed by unguarded machine at Kansas facility


Two trucking companies ordered to pay damages for retaliating against drivers


Connecticut Superior Court dismisses lawsuit by trucking company


NACOSH meeting scheduled for February


New study finds increased risk between silica and lung cancer and need for action to protect workers


Recent fatalities serve as reminder to ensure worker safety during demolition


OSHA renews strategic partnership with electrical transmission and distribution contractors, associations to reduce worker injuries, deaths


Alliance with Scaffold and Access Industry Association renewed to protect workers from scaffold hazards


New and updated OSHA resources available


El Paso office teams with temp worker agency, free consultation program for workplace safety outreach


Phoenix unveils fall protection billboards


Columbus office cohosts construction safety day


New on the DOL blog: OSHA celebrates 43rd anniversary


Help OSHA evaluate its heat illness prevention campaign


Follow us on Twitter and visit us on Facebook


Job openings

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Addressing Safety Challenges for Disabled Workers – “How Do You Get Through Your Day?”

Richie Parker, HMS Engineer -”How Do You Get Through Your Day?” – Video Courtesy of Hendrick Motorsports® ESPN®

Employees in today’s workplace face many challenges. Work forces have been cut, and in many cases, workdays have been extended. Older workers are unable to retire, while younger workers are unable to find work. New technology is introduced into the workplace, requiring all to relearn how to perform their jobs. This is difficult for the average worker, but it is extremely difficult if an employee is further hindered by disabilities.

Disabilities of all types affect employees and can pose various mental or physical challenges. In many situations, a disability may impact the amount of time it takes for an employee to complete a task or get from one part of a facility to another. Some disabilities may be known while others remain unknown to an employer. Thanks to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), employees with disabilities can continue to work without fear of losing their jobs1.

All employees with disabilities deserve the right to support their families. If otherwise qualified for a job, a disability should not take away an individual’s opportunity to work. Existing laws protected those discriminated against for race, sex, national origin and color, but the ADA was the first law to speak for those with disabilities in the workplace.

The ADA disallows discrimination against otherwise qualified individuals in an employment setting because of mental or physical disabilities2. This means that in many situations, the employer has to adjust a work environment to allow an employee to function. In 2009, the ADA was amended to include additional information and coverage. This amendment required the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to make changes to their regulations regarding the term “substantially limits” and how it is defined2. It also broadens the definition of “major life activities” to include many new activities.

Workplace Adaptations

As with any law that changes the workplace, some fight or avoid it while others fully embrace and promote it. One major compliance concern deals with accessibility. Because of this, many workplaces have adjusted or created more accessible entrances and exits to their facilities, allowing more independence for persons in wheelchairs. Other subtle changes may include the height of water fountains, width of bathroom stalls, hand rails inside the stalls and long ramps instead of stairs. The path of travel that employees take should never be obstructed; there should be no barriers to prevent someone from getting to safety in an emergency3.

Making accommodations in the workplace is important, yet one must avoid making a spectacle of employees with disabilities. One concept being utilized in workplaces is universal design, which is best defined as designing products and work spaces to allow use by everyone, regardless of disability4. This eliminates many cases of employees standing out or requiring special assistance to be able to complete their tasks. Better designed work spaces can increase function for all employees, regardless of age4. This still is a relatively new idea and few examples exist in the workplace despite multiple studies proving the effectiveness.

The goal is to remove all barriers and allow everyone to concentrate on completing job tasks.

Workstations easily can be adapted to follow this universal design. Many companies now use slide-out keyboard trays and monitors on swinging arms to allow employees to adjust to their needs. Desks can accommodate wheelchairs in place of regular chairs, and general work spaces can be lowered to allow easier access. All workplaces eventually will follow the universal design approach3. The main goal is to remove all barriers and allow everyone to concentrate more on completing their tasks.

The biggest challenge with universal design is accommodating the multitude of challenges that different disabilities present. Not all disabilities are the same, and not all will present the same challenges for employees. Some employees may have issues with their right hand while others have issues with their left. For some, it may involve not being able to stand or sit. Some may need low lighting, while others need bright lighting. Designing a facility to accommodate all is always going to be a challenge.

Some disabilities require a service animal to be able to get around or reach materials. ADA protects those that need such animals. This can create another complication for an employer if other employees are allergic to such animals. The employer must work with all parties involved to find a solution.

Companies using older facilities often have the most trouble complying with guidelines of the ADA. Designing a building from the ground up is much easier than attempting to retrofit existing facilities. Some of the complications with retrofitting facilities include adding adequate doorways. Depending on the design of the structure, adding doorways can be complicated and require an extensive amount of remodeling. Other complications include retrofitting areas with stairs and restrooms with stalls that are too narrow. Moving plumbing may require the existing floor to be torn out and require a lot of time.

Read the remainder of the story here: http://ehstoday.com/safety/addressing-safety-challenges-disabled-workers

Source: EHS Today®

Heavily Soiled Healthcare Linens Not ‘Regulated Waste,’ Per OSHA

OSHA

Long-term care facilities and other healthcare providers are not required to dispose of contaminated linen as “regulated waste,” the Occupational Safety and Health Administration clarified in a recent letter.

The letter came in response to queries from the Association for Linen Management and the American Reusable Textile Association. Healthcare laundry operators who belong to these organizations have called attention to the practice of placing heavily soiled linens in red bags, which is a sign to laundry operators that the bag must go to a waste department for disposal.

OSHA’s regulatory standard governing regulated waste is not meant to apply to linens that are laundered and reused, according to the agency’s letter.

Healthcare providers place linens in red bags out of an understandable desire to control infections, but doing so is unnecessary and costly, ALM Executive Director Linda Fairbanks told McKnight’s. The practice leads to hundreds of millions of dollars in annual costs, according to ALM and ARTA.

The practice of unnecessary disposal is most commonly seen in hospital operating rooms but is also an issue in long-term care, Fairbanks said. Facilities might dispose of linen that has been soiled by residents who have Clostridium difficile, she explained. This is because workers believe the infection is so virulent that disposal is the surest way to limit its spread. But this is not the case, according to Fairbanks.

Rather, workers should be sure to place heavily soiled linens in an impermeable bag so that it does not leak on the way to the laundry, she said. Then, the linens can be washed according to the requirements set forth by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.

Click here to view the  letter from OSHA.

OSHA QuickTakes – November 5, 2013

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In this issue

New educational resources released to better protect workers from exposures to hazardous chemicals


Comment period on proposed silica rule extended to provide additional time for public input


West, Texas, fertilizer company cited following deadly ammonium nitrate explosion


Wyoming OSHA cites Sinclair Refinery for $707,000 in proposed fines for 22 violations


OSHA orders Clean Diesel Technologies Inc. to pay $1.9 million to former CFO fired for reporting conflict of interest


Department of Labor seeks more than $300,000 for Idaho worker who was retaliated against for raising safety concerns


Temporary worker deaths serve as powerful reminder of the need for equal protection


Tens of thousands of construction employers and workers learn how “Safety Pays and Falls Cost”


RAND study finds U.S. workplace fatality rate three times higher than U.K.


Updated procedures issued for maritime cargo gear certification


Secretary Perez, Assistant Secretary Michaels meet with victims’ families to discuss ways to improve worker safety and health


Florida plastics company works with free On-site Consultation Program to update its safety program and eliminate workplace injuries


New OSHA resource illuminates lighting practices to protect shipyard workers


Follow us on Twitter and visit us on Facebook


Better health insurance choices now available


Job openings

Safety Comic of the Day – “OSHA Machine Guarding Requirements”

Machine Guarding Safety

Crushed hands and arms, severed fingers and limbs, lacerations and abrasions – the list of possible machinery-related injuries is long and horrifying. Many hazards are created by moving machine parts. Safeguards are essential for protecting workers from preventable injuries.

The following standards have been established to ensure the safety of machine operators and other employees in the area:

For a printable sample employer self-inspection checklist for safeguards & other hazards, see Appendix G.or click below for a copy:

https://www.osha.gov/dte/grant_materials/fy10/sh-20856-10/Machine_Guarding_Checklist.pdf

The purpose of machine guarding is to protect the machine operator and other employees in the work area from hazards created by ingoing nip points, rotating parts, flying chips and sparks. Some examples of this are barrier guards, light curtains, two-hand operating devices etc. [29 CFR 1910.212(a)(1)]

General Requirements: [29 CFR 1910.212(a)(2)]

  • Guards must not create potential hazards and must be attached to the machine where possible.
  • If guards cannot be attached to the machine, attach elsewhere.

The point of operation is the area on a machine where work is performed. [29 CFR 1910.212(a)(3)(i)]

Machines that expose an employee to injury must be guarded. The guarding device must:

  • If specific standards are not available, the machine construction should prevent the operator from having any part of his/her body in the danger zone during the operating cycle. [29 CFR 1910.212(a)(3)(ii)]
  • Special handtools used for placing and removing material from point of operation areas must allow easy handling of the material without the operator placing a hand in the danger zone. Such tools must not replace guards required by this section. [29 CFR 1910.212(a)(3)(iii)]

Additional Guarding

The following is a list of machines that usually require point of operation guarding:
[29 CFR 1910.212(a)(3)(iv)]

  • Guillotine cutters (a)
  • Shears (b)
  • Alligator shears (c)
  • Power presses (d)
  • Milling machines (e)
  • Power saws (f)
  • Jointers (g)
  • Portable power tools (h)
  • Forming rolls and calenders (i)

Barrels, Containers, and Drums Revolving barrels, containers, and drums must be guarded by an enclosure interlocked with the drive mechanism, so the barrel, gun, or container cannot revolve unless the guard enclosure is in place. [29 CFR 1910.212(a)(4)]

Exposure of Blades When the periphery of the blades of a fan is less than seven (7) feet above the floor or working level, the blades must be guarded. The guard must not have openings larger than one-half (½) inch. [29 CFR 1910.212(a)(5)]

Anchoring Fixed Machinery A machine designed for a fixed location must be securely anchored to prevent walking or moving. [29 CFR 1910.212(b)]

Eye and Face Protection Eye and face protection must be provided to each employee when exposed to eye or face hazards from flying particles. [29 CFR 1910.133(a)]

For more information, please refer to:

Lockout/Tagout The employer must establish an energy control program consisting of energy control procedures, employee training, and periodic inspections to ensure that before any employee performs any servicing or maintenance on a machine or equipment, the machine or equipment is isolated from the energy source and rendered inoperative. [29 CFR 1910.147(c)(1)]

For more information, refer to:

Moving machine parts have the potential to cause severe workplace injuries, such as crushed fingers or hands, amputations, burns, or blindness. Safeguards are essential for protecting workers from these preventable injuries. Any machine part, function, or process that may cause injury must be safeguarded. When the operation of a machine or accidental contact injure the operator or others in the vicinity, the hazards must be eliminated or controlled. This page contains general information on the various hazards of mechanical motion and techniques for protecting workers.

Machine guarding hazards are addressed in specific standards for the general industry, marine terminals, longshoring, and the construction and agriculture industries.

Standards

This section highlights OSHA standards, Federal Registers (rules, proposed rules, and notices), directives (instructions for compliance officers), standard interpretations (official letters of interpretation of the standards), and national consensus standards related to machine guarding.

OSHA

Note: Twenty-five states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have OSHA-approved State Plans and have adopted their own standards and enforcement policies. For the most part, these States adopt standards that are identical to Federal OSHA. However, some States have adopted different standards applicable to this topic or may have different enforcement policies.

General Industry (29 CFR 1910)

  • 1910 Subpart O, Machinery and machine guarding. Includes definitions, general requirements, and different kinds of machinery requirements.
    • 1910.211, Definitions
    • 1910.212, General requirements for all machines
    • 1910.213, Woodworking machinery requirements
    • 1910.214, Cooperage machinery [Reserved]
    • 1910.215, Abrasive wheel machinery
    • 1910.216, Mills and calendars in the rubber and plastics industries
    • 1910.217, Mechanical power presses. Includes general requirements in addition to specific requirements for construction, safeguarding, dies, inspection, maintenance, modification, operation, injury reporting, and presence sensing device initiation (PSDI).
      • Appendix A, Mandatory requirements for certification/validation of safety systems for presence sensing device initiation of mechanical power presses
      • Appendix B, Nonmandatory guidelines for certification/validation of safety systems for presence sensing device initiation of mechanical power presses
      • Appendix C, Mandatory requirements for OSHA recognition of third-party validation organizations for the PSDI standard
      • Appendix D, Nonmandatory supplementary information
    • 1910.218, Forging machines
    • 1910.219, Mechanical power-transmission apparatus
  • 1910 Subpart R, Special industries

Marine Terminals (29 CFR 1917)

Longshoring (29 CFR 1918)

  • 1918 Subpart I, General working conditions
    • 1918.96, Maintenance and repair work in the vicinity of longshoring operations. Paragraph (e) contains general requirements for machine guarding (see also 29 CFR 1918.2, definition of “danger zone”).

Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926)

  • 1926 Subpart I, Tools – Hand and power. Includes general machine guarding requirements and specific guarding requirements for different types of tools.

Agriculture Industry (29 CFR 1928)

  • 1928 Subpart D, Safety for agricultural equipment
    • 1928.57, Guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins

Federal Registers

  • Mechanical Power — Transmission Apparatus; Mechanical Power Presses; Telecommunications; Hydrogen. Final Rules 69:31880-31882, (2004, June 8). Corrects errors in four OSHA standards:
    1. The first correction deletes two references to a non existing table in the Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus Standard.
    2. The second is a correction of typographical errors in the Mechanical Power Presses Standard.
    3. The third correction is to a cross-reference in the Telecommunications Standard.
    4. The fourth correction is to a reference to a table contained in the Hazardous Materials Standard for Hydrogen.
  • Notice of Availability of the Regulatory Flexibility Act Review of Presence Sensing Device Initiation for Mechanical Power Presses. Proposed Rules 69:31927-31929, (2004, June 8). OSHA has conducted a review of the Presence Sensing Device Initiation (PSDI) requirements of the Mechanical Power Presses Standard pursuant to section 610 of the Regulatory Flexibility Act, and section 5 of Executive Order 12866 on Regulatory Planning and Review. Based on this review and public comments, OSHA has decided to update its mechanical power press standard to ANSI B.11.1-2001
  • Mechanical Power Presses. Final Rules 53:8322-65, (1988, March 14). Amendment of the standard for mechanical power presses, 29 CFR 1910.217, to allow (but not require) presence sensing device initiation (PSDI) on certain types of power presses.

Directives

  • National Emphasis Program on Amputations. CPL 03-00-003, (2006, October 27). Describes policies and procedures for implementing a National Emphasis Program (NEP) to identify and reduce or eliminate the workplace incidence of hazards which are causing or are likely to cause amputations.
  • 29 CFR 1910.217 Mechanical Power Presses, Clarifications. STD 01-12-021 [STD 1-12.21], (1978, October 30). Provides a guide to aid in the recognition of mechanical power presses’ point of operation hazards and uniform clarifications of definitions, guards, develop and methods of safeguarding.

Standard Interpretations

National Consensus

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

  • ANSI B11 Subcommittees. The ANSI B11 committee is responsible for developing machine tool safety standards. This document provides brief descriptions of the subcommittees and the hazards they are addressing.
    • B11.1-2001, Safety Requirements for Mechanical Power Presses
    • B11.2-1995 (R05), Hydraulic Power Presses – Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
    • B11.3-2002, Safety Requirements for Power Press Brakes
    • B11.4-2003, Safety Requirements for Shears
    • B11.5-1988 (R05), Ironworkers – Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
    • B11.6-2001, Safety Requirements for Manual Turning Machines with or without Automatic Control
    • B11.7-1995 (R05), Cold Headers & Cold Formers – Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
    • B11.8-2001, Safety Requirements for Manual Milling, Drilling, & Boring Machines with or without Automatic Control
    • B11.9-1975 (R05), Safety Requirements for the Construction, Care, and Use of Grinding Machines
    • B11.10-2003, Safety Requirements for Metal Sawing Machines
    • B11.11-2001, Safety Requirements for Gear and Spline Cutting Machines
    • B11.12-2005, Safety Requirements for Roll Forming & Roll Bending Machines
    • B11.13-1992 (R98), Single and Multiple-Spindle Automatic Bar, and Chucking Machines – Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
    • B11.14-1996, Coil Slitting Machines – Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use
    • B11.15-2001, Safety Requirements for Pipe, Tube and Shape Bending Machines
    • B11.16-2003 (MPIF #47), Safety Requirements for Powder/Metal Compacting Presses
    • B11.17-2004, Safety Requirements for Horizontal Hydraulic Extrusion Presses
    • B11.18-1997, Safety Requirements for Machines and Machinery Systems for Processing or Slitting or Non-Coiled Metal Strip, Sheet or Plate
    • B11.19-2003, Performance Criteria for Safeguarding
    • B11.20-2004, Safety Requirements for Integrated Manufacturing Systems
    • B11.21-1997, Safety Requirements for Machine Tools Using Lasers For Processing Materials
    • B11.22-2002, Safety Requirements for Turning Centers and Automatic Numerically Controlled Turning Machines
    • B11.23-2002, Safety Requirements for Machining Centers and Automatic Numerically Controlled Milling, Drilling and Boring Machines
    • B11.24-2002, Safety Requirements for Transfer Machines
    • B11.TR 1-2004, Ergonomic Guidelines for the Design, Installation
      And Use of Machine Tools
    • B11.TR 2-1997, Mist Control Considerations for the Design, Installation
      And Use of Machine Tools Using Metalworking Fluids
    • B11.TR 3-2000, Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction- A Guideline to Estimate, Evaluate and Reduce Risks Associated with Machine Tools
    • B11.TR 4-2004, Selection of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES/PLC) for Machine Tools
    • B11.TR5-200X, Sound Level Measurement Guidelines (not an approved document; in development)
    • B11.TR6-200X, Control Reliable Circuits and Servo Drive Technology

Hazard Recognition

The following references aid in recognizing hazards from ineffective machine guarding.

  • ANSI B11 Subcommittees. Provides brief descriptions of the subcommittees and the hazards they are addressing. The American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI) B11 committee is responsible for developing machine tool safety standards. Additional information about ANSI standards is available on their website.
  • Machine Safety. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Workplace Safety & Health Topic. Links to several documents that discuss machinery safety for different types of agricultural equipment, and machine guarding in general.

Possible Solutions

The following references provide possible solutions for machine guarding hazards.

  • Preventing Scalping and Other Severe Injuries from Farm Machinery. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-105, (1994, June). Describes five cases of persons who were scalped when their hair became entangled around the inadequately guarded rotating drivelines or shafts of farm machinery driven by power take-offs (PTOs).
  • Preventing Farm Machine Hazards [204 KB PDF, 3 pages]. The Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet AEX-593-91. Discusses hazards associated with farm machinery and the importance of guarding.

Additional Information

Related Safety and Health Topics Pages

Training

Other Resources

  • Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT). Accredited Standards Developing Organization (SDO) for the ANSI B11 series of standards for machine tools.

 

Addressing Safety Challenges for Disabled Workers – “How Do You Get Through Your Day?”

Richie Parker, HMS Engineer -”How Do You Get Through Your Day?” – Video Courtesy of Hendrick Motorsports® ESPN®

Employees in today’s workplace face many challenges. Work forces have been cut, and in many cases, workdays have been extended. Older workers are unable to retire, while younger workers are unable to find work. New technology is introduced into the workplace, requiring all to relearn how to perform their jobs. This is difficult for the average worker, but it is extremely difficult if an employee is further hindered by disabilities.

Disabilities of all types affect employees and can pose various mental or physical challenges. In many situations, a disability may impact the amount of time it takes for an employee to complete a task or get from one part of a facility to another. Some disabilities may be known while others remain unknown to an employer. Thanks to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), employees with disabilities can continue to work without fear of losing their jobs1.

All employees with disabilities deserve the right to support their families. If otherwise qualified for a job, a disability should not take away an individual’s opportunity to work. Existing laws protected those discriminated against for race, sex, national origin and color, but the ADA was the first law to speak for those with disabilities in the workplace.

The ADA disallows discrimination against otherwise qualified individuals in an employment setting because of mental or physical disabilities2. This means that in many situations, the employer has to adjust a work environment to allow an employee to function. In 2009, the ADA was amended to include additional information and coverage. This amendment required the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to make changes to their regulations regarding the term “substantially limits” and how it is defined2. It also broadens the definition of “major life activities” to include many new activities.

Workplace Adaptations

As with any law that changes the workplace, some fight or avoid it while others fully embrace and promote it. One major compliance concern deals with accessibility. Because of this, many workplaces have adjusted or created more accessible entrances and exits to their facilities, allowing more independence for persons in wheelchairs. Other subtle changes may include the height of water fountains, width of bathroom stalls, hand rails inside the stalls and long ramps instead of stairs. The path of travel that employees take should never be obstructed; there should be no barriers to prevent someone from getting to safety in an emergency3.

Making accommodations in the workplace is important, yet one must avoid making a spectacle of employees with disabilities. One concept being utilized in workplaces is universal design, which is best defined as designing products and work spaces to allow use by everyone, regardless of disability4. This eliminates many cases of employees standing out or requiring special assistance to be able to complete their tasks. Better designed work spaces can increase function for all employees, regardless of age4. This still is a relatively new idea and few examples exist in the workplace despite multiple studies proving the effectiveness.

The goal is to remove all barriers and allow everyone to concentrate on completing job tasks.

Workstations easily can be adapted to follow this universal design. Many companies now use slide-out keyboard trays and monitors on swinging arms to allow employees to adjust to their needs. Desks can accommodate wheelchairs in place of regular chairs, and general work spaces can be lowered to allow easier access. All workplaces eventually will follow the universal design approach3. The main goal is to remove all barriers and allow everyone to concentrate more on completing their tasks.

The biggest challenge with universal design is accommodating the multitude of challenges that different disabilities present. Not all disabilities are the same, and not all will present the same challenges for employees. Some employees may have issues with their right hand while others have issues with their left. For some, it may involve not being able to stand or sit. Some may need low lighting, while others need bright lighting. Designing a facility to accommodate all is always going to be a challenge.

Some disabilities require a service animal to be able to get around or reach materials. ADA protects those that need such animals. This can create another complication for an employer if other employees are allergic to such animals. The employer must work with all parties involved to find a solution.

Companies using older facilities often have the most trouble complying with guidelines of the ADA. Designing a building from the ground up is much easier than attempting to retrofit existing facilities. Some of the complications with retrofitting facilities include adding adequate doorways. Depending on the design of the structure, adding doorways can be complicated and require an extensive amount of remodeling. Other complications include retrofitting areas with stairs and restrooms with stalls that are too narrow. Moving plumbing may require the existing floor to be torn out and require a lot of time.

Read the remainder of the story here: http://ehstoday.com/safety/addressing-safety-challenges-disabled-workers

Source: EHS Today®

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